Blowout preventer BOP
BOP is an abbreviation for Blowout preventer. BOPs are considered as one of the most important and critical objects on a drilling rig as they are helpful in controlling the back pressure kick inside the wellbore. These objects are treated as a secondary option for controlling the back pressure kick in the wellbore, because the primary option for controlling the back pressure kick is the weight of the mud itself while drilling a well.
In a well, when the weight of the mud becomes lower than the pressure of the formation fluids, the primary control is lost thereby allowing the entry of formation fluids into the wellbore. If the fluids that entered the wellbore are not controlled and circulated out, it causes the creation of a tremendous amount of pressure that is experienced as a back pressure kick at the wellhead and will react as a blowout on the surface. This can cause severe damage to the environment and property and can cause fatalities. Thus, BOPs act as a secondary pressure control device that controls this back pressure kick and thereby saving the environment, property and lives of the people working on the rig.
BOPs are categorized as Annnular BOPs or Ram BOPs and they operate in a similiar way as a valve does i.e. opens and closes to release the pressure and circulate extra fluid through the outlet port. They work on the principle of hydraulic fluid under pressure using an accumulator.